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´╗┐Future spaceships should be built in orbit

Back in the 1950s, "Anaboliset Aineet" it was taken for granted "Anabolika Definition" that an expedition to the Moon (or beyond) would be assembled in Earth orbit. The expedition's ships would be assembled, tested and fuelled at a space station in low Earth orbit and then launched to points beyond.

Even in the early days of Project Apollo, planners took for granted that some orbital assembly would be necessary. The rockets just weren't big enough to launch even a small lunar expedition in one piece.

Orbital assembly gradually faded out of Apollo as the rockets got bigger and some technological tricks got better use out of them. The Comprar Levitra thinking went that orbital assembly "Oxandrolone Powder India" might be necessary later, but it wouldn't be used for the first expeditions. That's also the thinking of NASA's current plans to return to the Moon. But this thinking was a mistake back then, and it remains a mistake now.

The key virtue of orbital assembly is that it eliminates the tight connection between the size of the expedition and the size of the rockets used to launch it. That has three big advantages, one obvious and the others more subtle.

The obvious advantage is that the rockets don't need to be big enough to launch the entire expedition all at once.

Even if you decide that you must develop a new rocket, it can be of relatively modest size and flown more often. Using existing rockets and flying more often are both good ways to reduce costs.

A more subtle advantage is that you don't need to fix the exact size of the expedition when you choose the size of the rocket. In particular, if the expedition ends up being a little heavier than you expect, you can just launch a few more rockets to assemble it. Whereas if you plan on launching everything on one big rocket, and it turns out to be too small, you're Methandienone Msds really in trouble.

It's hard to estimate the mass of a big complex system correctly at the very start; usually it grows during development. As I noted in an earlier article, Apollo worked only because Wernher von Braun decided that he simply did not believe Houston's estimates of spacecraft mass, and so he quietly built the rocket for a considerably larger payload, just in case.

More subtly still, being able to work with smaller rockets means that you can work with a variety of smaller rockets. In particular, much of what has to be launched into orbit will be propellants (fuel and oxidiser), and they are cheap, standardised commodities. So you could consider accepting propellant deliveries from anyone able to do them, and the resulting competition could reduce costs dramatically.

There is also a longer term advantage: if you decide to launch everything on one big rocket, what happens when you outgrow that rocket? Even if your early expeditions stay within the rocket's capacity, presumably you'll want to do bigger and more complex ones later. What then? Develop a still larger rocket?

Even people who don't want to depend on orbital assembly for the first expeditions to the Moon (or Mars, or wherever) often will concede that it will be necessary eventually. But then, where's the gain in delaying it?

If you're going to want to do orbital assembly anyway, you're better off starting it right away, so even early expeditions can benefit from it. The only reason to delay it is if you think there won't be any later expeditions if you're planning a dead end programme.

Orbital assembly does have some disadvantages, but they're less serious than people often think. I'll talk about them in the second part of this article.

Henry Spencer, computer programmer, spacecraft engineer and amateur space historian (Image: NASA)

In a way the ISS is evidence of the counter argument. There was so much extra cost and complexity to design it so it was stable at each stage of assembly, and the extra problems of on orbit integration and testing plus issues where stuff lunched with out on the ground integration testing didn't work together in orbit that the program could have been done years faster, and cheaper (even including the cost of a custom HLV in the station budget) if it had been assembled no the ground and launched intact.

The current 1.5 launch (really two launch) architecture for ESAS is silly. It requires Ares V to be built even bigger than the Saturn V. Why? Why must a fully fueled TLI stage and a fully fueled lunar lander be launched on the same launch vehicle? Why shouldn't these be separated? Why shouldn't they be launched on separate launch vehicles and be launched with (largely) empty fuel tanks? Why put all of our eggs in the basket of Ares V which will require huge ground infrastructure changes?

If the ESAS architecture didn't require new launch vehicles, perhaps the development money to date could have been spent on Orion and there would be no "gap" between the end of shuttle flights and the beginning of Orion flights.

Instead, Griffin's short sightedness has led us down a path that threatens the entire ESAS program with cancellation.

Even if it could, it would have to have been designed to withstand the G forces of launch, which is much easier and cheaper for small components than an entire structure. It would have restricted the design to something much smaller, cramped and limited than what we have now.

Obviously, they worked out the integration issues as the structure exists. It's more a matter of the scale of the project and the fact that it's pushing the boundaries of space technology. Another factor is the multi national aspect of the station which though necessary, made integration more complicated.

If I had a hundred dollars to bet on future space exploration I'd put fifty of them on the development of a space cannon (vide Jules Verne/Gerard Bull) to put bulk cargo into low earth orbit for assembly. It's the cheapest foreseeable way of doing it for the next hundred years.

Of course it would help if you could build the cannon on the highest place on the planet, where air resistance would be reduced by one third. And you'd need some kind of a transport link to the site to bring in the materials and construction crews.

What a coincidence that the Chinese have just finished building the highest railroad in the world in Tibet.

Another Masteron 1 Ml benefit, you can have a separate man rated rocket. This could be much smaller since it would only have to boost personnel. There are existing proven systems, so no need to build the Aries 1. There are also several commercial vehicles Steroids Injection Gone Wrong that are being developed that could move "4-chlorodehydromethyltestosterone Ireland" people to LEO. And, even more importantly, back.

Also, in space assemble would allow the reuse of the Earth to moon system. If placed in a Earth/moon orbit, people would only have to boost themselves, a lander and supplies to escape velocity. The return could be accomplished by boosting back into LEO and riding down on a re usable launch vehicle.

Even the boost/de boost stage could remain in orbit.

A telescopic space elevator with each telescope part being 1 km long would require only 1000 of those to reach a low Earth orbit (LEO). From there a light weight shuttle could travel to a similar space elevator (but shorter, 1/6th?) at the Moon.

The frame ot the elevator would consist of two (or four) set of pipes that glided consentric and were moved by hydraulic (and/or wires).

The only obstacle would be to get the thickness of the pipes as small as possible, but with sufficiant strength. Nano carbon pipes?

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